# 2.8 Making major and minor second on all notes

 Category: Harmony | Tags: Intervals

### Theory

In Chapter 1.12 Major and minor second you’ve learned how to make major and minor seconds on the natural notes. In this chapter, you will learn how to make major and minor seconds on notes with a sharp or a flat, for example F sharp or B flat. First I explain which steps you have to take. Then, in four examples, you will learn to apply these steps. You are going to make them yourself in the exercise.

## 1. Step-by-step plan

To make seconds with a sharp or a flat, take the following steps:

1 By removing the accidental, we get the natural note on which the second will be made.

2 Make the interval on this note and decide if it is a major or minor second.

If this accidental is a sharp, than a major second changes into a minor second.
If this accidental is a flat, than a minor second changes into a major second.

4 If this is not the major or minor second asked for in the question, raise or lower the upper note of the interval.
To make a minor second from a major one, we need to lower the upper note of the second.
To make a major second from a minor one, we need to raise the upper note of the second.

## 2. Four examples

You will learn how to make a major second on F sharp and B flat, and a minor second on the C sharp and E flat.

### Example 1. Major second made on F sharp

1 Remove the accidental F# and the note becomes the natural F.

2 A second on a F is a G, the second F - G is a major second.

3 If we add the accidental once more, we get the second F# - G, a minor second.

4 To make a major second on F#, we have to raise the G to G#, F# - G#.

### Example 2. Major second made on B flat

1 Remove the accidental Bb and the note becomes the natural B.

2 A second on a B is a C, the second B - C is a minor second.

3 If we add the accidental once more, we get the second Bb - C, a major second.

### Example 3. Minor second made on C sharp

1 Remove the accidental C# and the note becomes the natural C.

2 A second on a C is a D, the second C - D is a major second.

3 If we add the accidental once more, we get the second C# - D, a minor second.

### Example 4. Minor second made on E flat

1 Remove the accidental Eb and the note becomes the natural E.

2 A second on an E is a F, the second E - F is a minor second.

3 If we add the accidental once more, we get the second Eb - F, a major second.

4 To make a minor second on Eb, we have to lower the F to Fb, Eb - Fb.

## 3. Practise

Harmony exercise 2c: practise making major and minor seconds on all notes.