1.6 Abbreviations and signs

 

Category: Elementary music theory | Tags: Abbreviations and signs

The abbreviations in music are of two kinds, namely, abbreviations of terms relating to musical expression, and the true musical abbreviations by the help of which certain passages, chords, etc., may be notated in a shortened form. You will learn about repeat signs, the fermata and octave sign.

1. Repeat signs

 

repeat herhaal Ch.1.6. Abbreviations and signs | Musictheory.education repeat repeat from the beginning.
  D.C. (Da Capo) from the beginning.
  Fine end.
  D.C. al Fine repeat from the beginning and play to the end.
  prima volta, seconda volta 1e2evolta Ch.1.6. Abbreviations and signs | Musictheory.education play the measures under bracket 1 the 1st time only, the measures under bracket 2 the 2nd time.

 

Examples

How do you perform repeat signs?

note example

 

How do you perform prima volta, seconda volta?.

note example

2. Fermata

 

fermate fermate Ch.1.6. Abbreviations and signs | Musictheory.education fermata hold the note longer than its value.

 

A fermata is notated above a note or rest. The performing musician can decide how long the note or rest should be held.

Fermate in maat 3
Example of a fermata (bar 3) - Sonatina in G major second movement by Beethoven.

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3. Octave sign

 

8va 8va Ch.1.6. Abbreviations and signs | Musictheory.education ottava play the notes one octave (8 notes) higher than written.

 

Example

How do you perform 8va?

note example